Text by James Bow
Late in 2017, the first revenue train will push north of Finch Avenue, and keep going. For the first time in the sixty-year history of the subway, the train will cross Steeles Avenue, the old boundary of Metropolitan Toronto, and continue two kilometres north, stopping in the heart of the redeveloping City of Vaughan. Stranger still, this train will not be operating on the Yonge subway line, which reached Finch in 1974. Rather, it will be travelling on the Spadina line, which opened for the public four years after the last extension to the Yonge line opened. Despite the Spadina subway’s youth, however, once its 8.6 kilometre, six station extension opens, it will be the culmination of over a quarter century of planning and preparation, political wrangling and will.
The extension of the Spadina subway to York University and the new commercial centre for the City of Vaughan was originally conceived as an extension that went nowhere near York University or Vaughan. Instead of heading northwest towards the Steeles/Jane intersection, Spadina trains would have travelled north on Dufferin to Finch and then east from there to Yonge.
Arguing Over Subway Plans in the 1980s
The year was 1989, and the province of Ontario and the municipality of Metropolitan Toronto were arguing over where the city’s next subways should be built. Five years earlier, Metropolitan Toronto had approved the Network 2011 Plan. This would have placed subways beneath Sheppard Avenue, Eglinton Avenue and through the east and south sides of Toronto’s downtown core. In 1985, the plan was estimated to cost $2.1 billion over thirty years.
In 1984, Bill Davis was still premier of Ontario. He had previously green-lighted a number of major transportation initiatives, including the Spadina subway and the Scarborough RT. His government was currently working on a proposal to set up a regional LRT system in the form of GO-ALRT. He was seen as sympathetic to Toronto’s transportation plans, and likely to have approved Metro’s Network 2011 proposal.
But Premier Davis retired, and the Conservatives were defeated after the next election. The new Liberal government of David Petersen wasn’t interested in spending the billions required to build Metro’s plan, and they set about looking for alternatives. In 1989, they proposed a Yonge-Spadina Belt Line.
The Province Proposes a Belt Line
One of the components of the Network 2011 proposal was a Downtown Relief Line, running from Pape Station to the Spadina/Front intersection, allowing commuters from Scarborough quick access to Toronto’s downtown while bypassing the overcroweded Bloor-Yonge interchange. In 1985, the proposed line was estimated to cost over a half-a-billion dollars. Support for the line was lukewarm, however, due in part to the cost, but also because it offered subway service to voters who arguably already had it. Politicians — especially those at the provincial level — gravitated towards installing suburbs in the vote-rich suburbs.
However, the issues which had led planners at Metro and the TTC to propose a Downtown Relief subway line hadn’t gone away. The Bloor-Yonge interchange was still operating at unsafe levels of crowding, and there was a limit to how much extra service could be added to the Yonge line. The TTC briefly considered renovating Bloor station to widen the station “box”, move the tracks apart, and install a central platform that would flush passengers out of trains quicker. They considered improving the signal system, to try and run subways through the stations at 90 second intervals — an increase in capacity of more than 33% over the current 120 second limit. These changes could eliminate the need for a Downtown Relief subway line, they argued, but they couldn’t be limited to just Bloor-Yonge station.
Thwarting the TTC’s plans to increase service on the Yonge-University-Spadina subway line were the terminals at Finch and Wilson. Unless turnaround times at these stations could be decreased, service more frequent than 120 seconds was impossible. After studying the issue, it was decided that one way to decrease the amount of time trains spent at the terminals was to eliminate the terminals altogether.
As a result, in 1989, provincial planners proposed extending the Yonge subway, taking it through a sharp left turn north of Finch Avenue and operating it west along the Ontario Hydro right-of-way. The line would continue to the Dufferin/Finch intersection (where a reservoir would have posed challenges to construction) before heading south beneath Dufferin Street to join up with the Spadina subway at Wilson station. The intermediate stops would be at Bathurst, Finch/Dufferin and Sheppard/Dufferin.
The result would have been a gigantic belt-line. Not only would this allow the TTC to run trains closer together, it would separate the northbound and southbound tracks into two continuously operating unidirectional subway lines. Delays on one line would no longer have an affect on the other. Also, by joining the two ends of the line across the hydro right-of-way north of Finch Avenue, passengers boarding the Yonge subway at Finch, Sheppard or York Mills could “go over the top” and access downtown stops via the Spadina line (which had capacity to spare) with travel times that were comparable to taking the subway straight down Yonge. Between this and proposed bus lane improvements, provincial planners argued, the need for both the Downtown Relief and Sheppard subway lines could be eliminated.
The Battle Begins.
The province’s proposal upset backers of the Sheppard subway line, especially North York Mayor Mel Lastman. Critics ridiculed the idea of running trains through deserted Hydro corridors and asked if groundhogs were the intended passengers. Scarborough residents and politicians complained that, unlike the Sheppard subway proposal, the Belt Line plan benefitted North York alone and not them.
Representatives from York University and York Region, however, thought that the proposal had merit — so long as the Belt Line was expanded to run beneath Steeles Avenue and through the suburban university campus before heading southeast to connect to the Spadina subway. While this decreased the likelihood of Yonge patrons going “over the top” to use the Spadina subway for their trips downtown, this proposal offered many of the benefits of the Finch proposal, as well as offering improved access to York University for its students, and a strong incentive for York Region commuters to get out of their cars.
As the debate between the Network 2011 plan and the Belt Line proposal continued, the Petersen government approved construction on the one common element between both plans: a short one-station extension of the Spadina subway from Wilson station to the Sheppard/Dufferin intersection. Despite acknowledging that the extension ran “from nowhere to nowhere”, Metro politicians agreed to the extension, and construction started in 1989. Seven years later, Downsview station opened to the public.
The New Democrats Stall, then Push the Proposal.
In September 1990, the Petersen Liberals fell to Bob Rae and the New Democrats, and provincial support for new subway construction was delayed yet again. It would be another four years before the NDP brought forward their “Let’s Move” plan. In their proposal, the Network 2011 plan had been reduced to truncated versions of the Sheppard and Eglinton West subways. In addition to these two lines, the Rae government proposed extending the Scarborough RT east and north to Sheppard and Markham Road, and extending the Spadina line to York University, possibly as the first phase of the belt line along Steeles Avenue.
By this time, support for the York University extension had increased. The City of Vaughan offered to pay for part of the cost of constructing Steeles West station. Despite this, Metropolitan Toronto felt that it could not support the Scarborough RT and York University proposals. The city was caught in the grip of a recession, and the funds weren’t available. In the end, the province and Metro agreed to start construction on the Eglinton West and Sheppard lines and hold back the Scarborough RT and York University extensions to a later date. The defeat of the NDP government and the election of Mike Harris’ Conservatives in June 1995 resulted in the cancellation of the Eglinton West subway, as well as the elimination of all operating and capital subsidy to public transportation (with the exception of the construction costs of the Sheppard subway). As a result, the York University extension proposal entered a phase of dormancy.
Vaughan Revives the Proposal
Despite Harris’ elimination of provincial funding for public transportation, as the Sheppard subway continued construction, the City of Toronto started to think about where next the subway extensions should go. On the eve of the 1999 provincial election, Mel Lastman asked TTC planners to consider which projects should have priority, should the Harris Conservatives offer a gift to Toronto voters. An extension of the Sheppard subway from Don Mills to Victoria Park rated highly. The Eglinton West subway and the Scarborough RT extension were hardly mentioned at all. Planners focused strongly on the Spadina extension to York University, however.
By 1999, the York University extension had a number of things in its favour. Proposed redevelopments of the Downsview military base, and the prospect of the 2008 Summer Olympics for Toronto, were strong incentives for the project. Then there was the City of Vaughan which, in the year 2000, brought forward a plan to build a new city core around the Jane/Highway 7 intersection. To anchor this development, they proposed taking the Spadina subway through York University and north of Steeles to this intersection. Vaughan offered to pay for the costs of all construction north of Steeles Avenue, as well as to lobby their local MPPs to commit provincial funding for the whole extension. York University threw its support behind Vaughan’s proposal, not only to get construction going, but because they didn’t want the subway to end at York University, as that could lead to an onslaught of York Region commuters seeking to park on University land.
When Vaughan’s proposal came forward, there was some consideration of joining the Yonge and Spadina subways along Highway 7, but the idea was quickly dropped. Around 2005, York Region and, later, the Province of Ontario put forward a proposal to extend the Yonge subway to Langstaff Avenue, with no thought of taking the line east, west or north from there. There were no serious proposals to bring the northern ends of the Yonge and Spadina lines together after 2002.
Vaughan’s support brought the York University extension out of dormancy and made it a priority in the eyes of Toronto planners. The election of the McGuinty Liberal government, and particularly the election of McGuinty’s finance minister Greg Sorbara to that area’s riding, raised hopes that provincial funding would materialize. Finally the McGuinty Liberals offered funds so that the City of Toronto could embark on a full environmental assessment of the project, including public consultations. These were finished in 2005.
Support from the provincial government did indeed materialize. On March 23, 2006, the province of Ontario surprised observers by committing $670 million in its budget to extend the Spadina subway not only to Steeles West, but beyond to the proposed Vaughan Corporate Centre (later renamed Vaughan Metropolitan Centre). The funding covered just a third of the anticipated cost of construction at the time. The Region of York and the City of Toronto themselves had to put up an additional third of the share (with Toronto covering 60% and York 40%), with the final share to come from the federal government in Ottawa. Delays in obtaining this funding, as well as further public consultation on the detailed design, kept shovels out of the ground until 2010. Finally, construction began in earnest, building a shaft at the north end of Downsview Park.
The extension’s design phase came to a close near the end of 2009, and work began in earnest on building the line. The first step was to drill into the route, to gather soil samples to confirm the conditions that construction workers were going to face as they dug deep. The soil samples generally confirmed that the water table along the route was higher than expected — a fact which significantly increased the cost of construction throughout the line.
As work began on the initial shaft near Sheppard West/Downsview Park station, the tunnel boring machines arrived on January 17, 2011. Tunnel boring was chosen as the primary means of construction in order to limit disruption on the surface. The four machines — named Holey, Moley, Yorkie and Torkie via a contest — were built by a Toronto-based company called Lovat. and purchased by the TTC for $58 million. The tunnel borers will cover 6.6 kilometres of the extension’s 8.6 kilometre length, with the remainder built using a cut-and-cover technique.
On Friday, June 17, 2011, Toronto mayor Rob Ford joined provincial Minister of Transportation Kathleen Wynne, York Region Chairman Bill Fisch, TTC Chair Karen Stintz and federal Minister of the Environment Peter Kent at a ceremony which launched the first of the four tunnel boring machines that would build the bulk of the route in time for an opening late in 2015.
From the Sheppard West/Downsview Park station site, the four tunnel boring machines will dig twin tunnels, 5.4 metres wide, in opposite directions from the station, with one set heading towards Downsview station, and the other set heading northwest to Finch West. Once the job is done, they’ll be extracted, and moved to the next launching site. One is planned at Steeles West, heading southeast towards Finch West, and another is planned at Highway 407, heading north and south to complete the line.
A Question of Names
While the tunnel boring machines started chomping out paths between Downsview station and Vaughan, the TTC tackled the thorny question of what to name the stations. Planners noted the potential for confusion between two stations on the route: the stop immediately after Downsview, located on the north end of Downsview Park, was initially to be named Sheppard West, even though Downsview station, with its large bus terminal, was the first station on the Spadina subway to open at Sheppard Avenue. An alternate name for Sheppard West station was Downsview Park, but the TTC feared that such a name would be too easily confused with Downsview station.
At the other end of the line, the City of Vaughan asked for the terminal station to be named Vaughan Metropolitan Centre, something TTC planners initially opposed because the name, they argued, was too long. They suggested Vaughan Centre would be easier to remember and in keeping with other station examples including North York Centre and Scarborough Centre.
The TTC studied what to call every station on the line, and made recommendations as to names on September 30, 2010. They suggested that, when the Spadina extension opened, Downsview station should be renamed “Sheppard West” (proposals to name the station “Allen”, “Dufferin North” and “Sheppard-Allen” were rejected). The next station, initially proposed to be named Sheppard West, would instead be named Downsview Park (rejecting “GO-Sheppard”, “Chesswood”, “Bakersfield” and “Carl Hall”).
Further north, the stop beneath the Finch/Keele intersection would be named “Finch West”, in spite of a local councillor’s campaign to name the stop “University Heights”. The proposed names of “Keele North” and “Keele-Finch” were also rejected, along with “Four Winds” and “Sentinel”.
North of Finch West, the station following would be named “York University”, as it is in the centre of campus. “Ian MacDonald”, “University” and “York” were all rejected.
The next station, located beneath Steeles Avenue, was initially to be named “Steeles West”, in anticipation of the Yonge line’s extension to Steeles Avenue and beyond. However, in September 2012, TTC commissioners voted to alter the station’s name to Black Creek Pioneer Village, after the museum park of heritage buildings located nearly 500 metres to the west. This lengthy name required alterations to the design of the station’s entrance. The station entrance would have bourne the words “Steeles West” along its curving roof line, but the new name was so long, the visible portion along the roof was likely to read “Eek Pio”. Commissioners voted to allow the architect to shorten the display to just “Pioneer Village”.
Further north, planners considered naming the next station “Black Creek” and “Jane North” before finally settling on “Highway 407”. As for the terminal station, the TTC accepted Vaughan’s request to name it “Vaughan Metropolitan Centre”.
The Alignment and its Stations
The environmental assessment and public consultation process in 2005 finalized the proposed alignment of the York University extension to Steeles West. Further studies in 2007 through 2010 finalized the alignment to Vaughan and the placement and design of the stations. Initially, there was debate over whether the line should cross CN’s Newmarket subdivision (which the Barrie GO Trains use) closer to Finch or Sheppard Avenues. Also, until the City of Vaughan pushed its Corporate Centre plan, there was debate whether the line at Steeles should face northeast for a possible extension towards Yonge Street, or northwest for a possible extension towards Jane and Highway 7.
As currently planned, the Spadina subway extension would begin at Downsview station, which would be renamed Sheppard West. A new pocket track would be built where the line emerges from tunnel south of the station. Initially this pocket track was to be built north of the station, but such a construction would have required a number of businesses to be expropriated and demolished. The pocket track would allow the TTC to short turn trains — originally at here, but with the change, now at Wilson.
Also part of the extension is a new tunnel and track connecting Downsview/Sheppard West station with Wilson Yard. Construction started in February 2010 using cut-and-cover as well as decking to get the tunnel beneath Allan Road. The new tunnel diverges from the southbound track just south of the Downsview crossover and heads southwest to access Wilson Yard from the north. With this connection, trains can more easily head northbound from Wilson Yard, starting service earlier in Vaughan and at York University.
North of Sheppard Avenue, the subway extension would curve gently west, passing beneath Sheppard Avenue at Chesswood Drive and proceeding west a short distance south of Sheppard Avenue. A station stop, now named Downsview Park, would be built beneath the Barrie GO Train line. Entrance pavilions on either side of the new GO station would give passengers access to pedestrian walkways leading to Sheppard Avenue and towards Downsview Park. The western entrance would feature a kiss ‘n’ ride drop-off area. Passengers would have to walk to Sheppard Avenue to connect with nearby buses; no doubt the TTC would encourage these passengers to make their connections at Downsview instead. Finally, the TTC expects that a new GO Train station would be built at the site so that passengers on the Barrie GO train could connect to the subway. It would be Metrolinx’s responsibility to pay for the construction of this station, but the TTC anticipates that the facility would be ready for opening day.
The initial budget for the construction of Downsview Park station was set at $59.2 million. In 2010, the TTC estimated that the final cost of construction, including costs recovered from GO Transit, would be $102 million. The reason for the increase in costs included a higher than expected water table, and building the station to Toronto’s new Green Standard. To save money, the TTC recommended reducing the curve of the line west of the station, switching to tunnelling instead of cut-and-cover for the tracks between Sheppard West and Downsview, and eliminating an emergency exit building.
Continuing west, the line would pass beneath Sheppard Avenue at Ceramic Road, and then curve gently north, passing beneath Keele Street at St. Regis Crescent, and continuing north under Keele Street. Finch West station would be built beneath the Keele/Finch intersection, featuring a bus terminal connecting with Keele and Finch West buses, commuter parking in the Hydro right-of-way (400 spaces) and a passenger pick-up/drop-off area.
North of Finch
In 2010, the TTC approved a station design which included a connection with a Finch West LRT on Finch Avenue. This plan changed in December of that year when newly elected mayor Rob Ford cancelled Toronto’s support for the project. Revisions to the station plan now call for a larger bus terminal to handle the additional buses required. Construction on this station was initially budgeted for $109 million. Before the removal of the LRT connection, that budget had increased to $134 million.
In a report, the TTC dismissed a suggestion of naming the station Keele North, but the commission hasn’t considered other suggestions, including Keele/Finch. This station’s name, along with all the others on the extension, shouldn’t be considered permanent until they are engraved on the station walls.
North of Finch West station, the line continues north beneath Keele Street before turning gently northwest. The next station, named York University, would be located beneath York University Commons, where a number of transit vehicles currently meet. The main station building would be located in the east end of the Commons, with north and south entrances adjacent to the York Lanes Mall and the Accolades East building respectively. The station would have no off-street bus terminal and no dedicated parking. Connections with the TTC, GO, York Region Transit and Brampton Transit would occur on-street around the Common area.
The station was originally budgeted to cost $86 million. By early in 2010, a high water table, higher than expected inflation, and Toronto’s Green Standard had increased those costs to $115 million, prompting the TTC, the station design consultant and York University to enter into discussions about ways to reduce costs. The station was expected to be substantially complete by November 2014.
Continuing northwest, the line would enter the Black Creek Pioneer Village complex (formerly known as “Steeles West”), with a station beneath Steeles Avenue a few hundred metres east of Murray Ross Parkway. There would be pedestrian entrances, and two bus terminals (a 12 bay one for TTC buses and the other for York Region/VIVA and GO Transit buses), with a passenger pick-up/drop-off alongside a large commuter parking lot (19,000 spaces) in the Hydro right-of-way running north of Steeles Avenue.
North of Pioneer Village, the line would curve until it ran north, still underground, just to the west of Jane Street. Just south of Highway 407, a new station would be built, called Highway 407. This station would offer a commuter parking lot with 600 spaces, and a bus terminal to serve an as-yet-unbuilt transitway along Highway 407. Construction of this station was initially budgeted for $95 million. Complications to the project have since increased estimated costs to $134 million.
Heading north, the line would continue underground, paralleling Jane Street before finally reaching Highway 7 and its final station, named Vaughan Metropolitan Centre. The actual stop would be beneath Millway Avenue and Highway 7, one block west of Jane. Unlike the other stations on the line, Vaughan Metropolitan Centre would have few amenities. No parking is planned, and no bus terminal is offered, although a VIVA stop will be placed directly across the street from the main entrance. Vaughan Metropolitan Centre station anchors a major redevelopment of the area, with high rises, commercial and residential development designed to be accessed by walking to and from the station. In keeping with Vaughan’s urban design for its Corporate Centre, plans for the station include space for bike storage.
To simplify fare collection, Spadina stations north of Steeles Avenue would be considered within the TTC fare zone, with no transfers offered or accepted from connecting York Region Transit routes. The TTC would be entitled to all fare revenue from Vaughan Metropolitan Centre and Highway 407 stations, and be responsible for the stations upkeep. Service would likely split at Pioneer Village, with every other train turning back there, and the remainder continuing into Vaughan.
Delays and Reorganization
Unfortunately, by early 2015, it was clear that the subway extension project was not proceeding to plan. Weather-related delays played a role due to unexpectedly cold winters, and time was lost to a Ministry of Labour investigation when a fatal accident cost the life of a construction worker, pushing the official opening date to 2016 and putting the project $400 million over budget. There were further concerns over how contractors at some of the stations were not meeting deadlines, and questions over how the TTC managed its contractors. On March 20, 2015, the TTC took a report that highlighted a number of additional costly delays that would push the opening beyond 2016. As a result of these delays, two senior TTC executives tied to the project resigned.
The report laid out four options for continuing. The most expensive option, keeping the current organizational set-up, was expected to cost $185 million, and delay the opening of the extension to 2019. The cheapest, sourcing the remainder of the construction to a third-party project manager (one candidate was already available), would cost only $150 million, and allow the project to be finished by 2017. Opening the project and issuing a request for proposals could push the cost up to $180 million, and delay the opening to 2018.
At its meeting, the TTC Commissioners approved the report, assigning the remaining construction and oversight of the extension to the single bidder. The opening date was officially pushed back to late 2017, although the pace picked up.
The York University extension has had its share of critics during its long history. Some have questioned the merits of stations by Downsview Park or in the middle of a field near a highway. Others have complained that the subway was looked upon favourably more for its service to the strategic riding of Vaughan than for its actual merit. However, when the 8.6 kilometre extension opens to the public in late 2017, it will be the longest extension to the Toronto subway network in almost 40 years. It will connect with a number of important regional transit services, including York Region’s VIVA and potential GO Transit services along Highway 407.
The Spadina subway extension will also anchor a major redevelopment in the heart of Vaughan that the city hopes will change its suburban nature into something more urban and far less dependent on the automobile. It will also carry more than 100,000 passengers per year — far fewer than the Yonge or Bloor-Danforth subways in their first days, but more than what the Sheppard subway currently handles.
Like it or not, the Spadina subway extension will be a major addition not just to the Toronto’s subway network, but to the overall transportation picture of the Greater Toronto Area.
Spadina-York Extension Image Archive
- Spadina-York Subway Committee Business Case - pdf file.
- Spadina-York Subway Committee Business Case - pdf file.
- Sheppard West Station - Open House Presentation Boards - 5.8 Mb, PDF
- Toronto-York Spadina Subway Extension Project - Sheppard West Station Approval of Conceptual Design - 918 Kb, PDF Finch West Station - Open House Presentation Boards
- Toronto-York Spadina Subway Extension Project - Finch West Station - Approval of Conceptual Design - 2.4 MB, PDF
- Toronto-York Spadina Subway Extension Project - York University Station Open House Presentation Boards - 8.6 MB, PDF
- Toronto-York Spadina Subway Extension Project -York University Station Approval of Conceptual Design - 1.9 MB, PDF
- Toronto-York Spadina Subway Extension Project - Steeles West Station - Approval of Conceptual Design - 800 Kb, PDF
- Toronto-York Spadina Subway Expansion Project - Highway 407 Station - Open House Presentation Boards - 7.9 MB, PDF
- Toronto-York Spadina Subway Extension Project - Highway 407 Station - Approval of Conceptual Design- 900 Kb, PDF
- Toronto-York Spadina Subway Expansion Project - Vaughan Metropolitan Centre Station - Open House Presentation Boards - 6 MB, PDF
- Haskill, Scott, ‘Toronto Subway Expansion’, Rail and Transit, March 1993, p3-5, The Upper Canada Railway Society, Toronto (Ontario).
- Immen, Wallace, ‘Ambitious plan in works to give Vaughan a “heart”’, Globe and Mail, April 10, 2000, pA?, Toronto (Ontario).
- Mackenzie, Robert, ‘See the Design for the Future Steeles West Station, March 9, Transit Toronto, February 28, 2011, Online Toronto (Ontario).
- White, Patrick, ‘Boring Project Excites Rob Ford, Globe and Mail, June 17, 2011, online edition, Toronto (Ontario).